Juliana, lines 635-731 [end]

Juliana is then taken to the edge of that country to be killed. She speaks to the crowd, encouraging them to remember God in heaven and to hold fast in faith. She is then killed with a sword.

Then the nobleman takes a ship voyage and he and all his men are drowned. But Juliana’s body is taken by many people to her grave inside the city.

[Then follows the exhortative passage that contained Cynewulf’s runic signature. The first part of the passage is difficult to interpret, but seems to mean that Cynewulf is in great need and that he hopes that the saint will give him help when those closest to him must part. His soul will depart from his body on a journey. He will pass away and God will be angry when those who have sinned must await judgment. Cynewulf will be afraid].

He remembers all his sins and weeps for them. He will need favors when he dies. Cynewulf prays that everyone who reads the poem will remember his name and pray to God for him on Judgment Day. He concludes by praying that we will all find God merciful in that time.

Juliana, lines 559-634

[this leaf begins with the end of a prayer by Juliana]

After Juliana finishes praying, an angel puts out the fire where she was standing unharmed. The nobleman now needed to find another way to execute Juliana, so he orders her to be thrown into boiling lead.

But when she is pushed in, the boiling lead explodes, killing 75 of the onlookers. And not one hair of her head nor one thread of Juliana’s clothing is burned.

The nobleman is furious, and commands that Juliana be decapitated by a sword. Juliana is happy when she hears this, because she knows that her life will now be set free.

Suddenly, the same devil that Juliana had forced to confess arrives from hell. He speaks to the crowd, telling them to punish her because she had humiliated him. Juliana looks at the devil and he scrambles away, saying that he is destroyed because she has shamed him so much.

Juliana, lines 483b-558

The devil continues his confession, admitting that he blinds, cripples and burns people.  He also causes their veins to burst and brings about drownings and crucifixions. He also causes strife through drunkenness, and some people he kills with his own hands.  It would take more than a full summer’s day to tell how many evil things he has done since Adam and Eve lost paradise.

The devil says he has also caused all wars.  He notes that no other person had ever conquered him before Juliana.  He will have to tell what happened to him in his dark home (i.e., hell).

The nobleman has  Juliana led out of her cell.  She drags the devils along with her and begs her not to humiliate him in front of the men.  Juliana releases him to go back to the pit.  The devil is very concerned that he will have to tell the other devils what happened to him.

[here a leaf is missing from the MS].

Juliana, lines 383-483a

The devil continues to explain how he can harm people by encouraging them into sin.  He says that he has to retreat, humiliated, if a soldier of God remains steadfast and bold in prayer.  Then the devil has to seek out a weaker soldier. Even if this soldier attempts to do a good deed, the devil looks upon his whole conscience and finds a weak point and then convinces the weaker solider that it is easier to give into the desires of the flesh.  The devil seeks to destroy the soul, so that the body will become food for worms.

Juliana speaks again, commanding the devils to explain how the devil can put himself in the company of good people and why he is not afraid of people steadfast in truth.

The devil ask Juliana how she has managed to fetter him, and answers that she trusted in God.  Likewise the devil trusts in the power of his father, the king of hell.  He worries that he will be humiliated in hell because of his defeat by Juliana and asks her to pity him in his need.

Juliana tell him he will have to confess more evils deeds.  The devils replies that he knows he must suffer anything that she commands.

[it is particularly interesting how much C. S. Lewis’ The Screwtape Letters seems to owe to this passage]

Juliana, lines 289-382

[there is a break in the text here. The next leaf begins in the middle of the devil’s confession]

The devil is confessing to having been a part of many bad things. Caused Herod to cut off John’s head, got Simon to start persecuting, Nero to kill Peter and Paul, Pilate to crucify Christ, Ægas to crucify Andrew… I’ve helped do so much evil stuff that I can’t remember it all.

Juliana says: tell me more. Who sent you?

The devils says that his father, the king of helldwellers, sent him. Wow, you should see how terrible hell is and how miserable and afraid we all are. My father sends his servants all over the world to do bad things. And if we aren’t able to turn someone to evil, we get punished.

Juliana says: tell about how you injure people who are usually strong in truth, how do you get them to fall into sin?

The devils says he change shape and turns the minds of those who are strong in truth. I give them heart-lusts, delusions, the desire for sinful pleasures. And when I succeed, my victim goes away from prayer and takes up vices. I bring terror on those I hate for their faith and, if they obey me, they aftewards die, bereft of virtues.

Juliana, lines 198-288

The nobleman gives Juliana another chance to obey him, but she refuses, saying the she trusts in God. The nobleman then has Juliana hung by her hair on a gallows and be beaten for six hours. Then he ordered her to be taken down and put in prison. Lying inside the prison door, she continued to praise God. The Holy Spirit was her companion.

Then a devil came into the prison, but in the form of an angel. He spoke to Juliana and asked her why she is refusing to give in. He tells her that God wants her to go make a sacrifice to the pagan gods.

Juliana asks where he has come from, and he says he is an angel of God, and that God orders her to save herself.

Juliana cries out to God, asking to be allowed not to submit and asks Him to prove that the devil really is His messenger.

A voice answers from the heavens and tells Juliana to seize the devil and force him to tell his errand.

Juliana grasps the devil.

[here there is a missing MS leaf]

Juliana, lines 105-188

Juliana tells her father that she will never accept a marriage with the nobleman unless he becomes Christian.

Her father, furious, says that if she goes on worshipping alien gods, and refuses to be married to the nobleman, she will be torn by animals. To insult the lord of a terrible path of action.

Juliana says that as long as she lives she will not speak a lie. She does not fear and ordeals nor will she ever be turned from the worship of Christ.

The father ordered her to be flogged and put to torture and tells her to change her mind.

She refuses, saying she will only honor the true God.

So Africanus, the father, handed Juliana over to Eleusius.

This nobleman ordered her to be taken to his judgment seat in front of all the people, and he said to her: Juliana, you are very sweet. If you will now worship our gods, you will avoid many tortures.

Juliana refuses, saying that she is not intimidated by threats.

So the nobleman ordered Juliana to be stretched out naked and beaten with whips.

Juliana, lines 1-104

We have heard of what happened in the days of the persecutions of Maximian: he hated Christians. There was a nobleman who sacrificed to idols. He began to desire Juliana, but she wanted to preserve her virginity. Julian’s father promised her to the nobleman.

Julian said to the man: if you believe in the true God and stop worshipping idols, I will be commanded by you.

The nobleman became enraged and summoned her father. He said to her father: your daughter does not want to accept my love. This is an insult to me because she says that I have to worship another god.

Juliana’s father beame angry and said: if what you are saying is true, I will turn her over to you for punishment, even a death sentence. He went to speak to Juliana and said: you are the sweetest to me in the world, but you are making a mistake. This nobleman would be good to have as a friend. Do not let his love slip away.